Dr JPB Prinsloo


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by Dr. Johan P. Prinsloo
Edited (or entirely re-written into proper English) by my dear friend Lyn Marshall

Nutrition, Diet & Life-style

Digestive system and diet

I have always been interested in whether diet, lifestyle and nutrition have an influence on longevity.

I often ask my patients who have lived beyond "three score years and ten" about their eating habits and lifestyle. To put it in a nutshell, their eating habits and lifestyle, more often than not, go against everything we are led to believe about diet and nutrition. Everything is contrary to what we are told by the media, by medical practitioners, by dieticians and other so-called health gurus.

Three of my grand-parents lived beyond "three score years and ten" and I would like to share some home-truths about them with you.

My late grand-father (on my mother's side) was born in 1905, lived to 90 years of age. He was a sailor in his youth and later joined the South African Railways. In 1948, at the age of 43, he was told by the medical profession that he only had a year to live and was boarded. He was later employed by the Botanical Gardens in Silverton, Pretoria, where he worked for many years.

He was a smoker all his life, and a heavy one at that. He would puff away so hard on a cigarette that the smouldering cigarette butt would stretch out at the end of his cigarette more than a centimetre. He smoked between 90 and 120 cigarettes a day, which to him, felt like inhaling clean, fresh, country air.

If one felt like treating him, al it took was a can of Nestle's Condensed milk or the biggest bar of chocolate on the shelf. He would down the whole can of condensed milk in one long gulp and then make sure he finished it off properly by emptying the can with his fingers. When it came to chocolates, he would finish his bar of chocolate and then gaze at mine with longing eyes, in the hopes that I would offer him the rest of mine, which I invariable did.

He was a serious red meat-eater and couldn't wait for my grand-mother's roast to come out of the oven so he could pour the fat from the roasting pan into his favoutire cup and drink the fat as if he were drinking a cup of tea. He refused to eat lean meat, and always opted for the fattiest piece.

One of his treats, which I will never foget, was a good cup of tea with a teaspoon of butter, fife teaspoons of refined, white sugar and a dash of milk.

Having been a sailor in his youth, liquor was no threat to his system. He would sometimes down a tumbler of neat Vodka followed by half a cup of water. This was quite something to see.

At the time of my late grand-father's departure he weiged 134kg. His mother was a large, sturdy woman, who died at the age of 102 weighing 181.44kg or 400 pounds.

My late grand-mother (on my mother's side) enjoyed a similar diet and life-style to that of my late grand-father and lived to be 84 years old.

My late grand-mother (on my father's side) who was born in 1911, lived to just over 87 years of age. She had a very poor upbringing and always on a "seafood" diet (see food and eat it). I don't think I know of anyone that eats the way she used to eat. . She loved food and especially cakes, sweets and fruit. She ate fruit by the bag full and there were no limits when it came to eating things likes cakes and sweets. If ever I felt like a sweet I knew I would find a few in her handbag. She was extremely good at baking and used to bake wedding cakes for a living for many years. She also baked bread in a mud-oven which was by far, the best bread I have ever eaten. She had the digestive system of a hyena. If for some reason, we never finished our food, you could be sure that she would finish it for us. Lunch and dinner wwas always followed by a home-made desert. Her milk tart was totally irresistible. She could eat anything and everything and never suffered from heartburn or any other form of gastric discomfort.

Granny smoking on 100th birthdayShe smoked home-rolled cigarettes. Her cigarettes were hand made with a little device called Rizzla cigarette maker. Her home-rolled cigarettes were not the average cigarette, whoch has a limited amount of tar or nicotine. They were made from the strongest possible tobacco available and she loved it.

She never drank alcohol in her life. I do not recall her ever having had a glass of champagne, sparkling wine or any other type of wine for that matter, let alone anything stronger.

She weighed 120kg when she passed away, which is what she weighed for as long as I can remember.


I have a patient who is 88 years old and his wife 85. They consume five litres of milk every two days between the two of them. They have pap (porridge) at least twice a day. At bedtime they a biltong, cheese, onion and tomato sandwich with a tall glass of milk. This they have in bed, every single night of their lives. They have meat three times per day, seven days a week.

There are too many such examples similar those above to mention, but all you need to do is to look around you and talk to people who are 80 years and older.

None of these elderly people ever eat raw vegetables. In fact their vegetables are ALWAYS over-cooked. They are all red meat-eaters and dislike lean meat.

What is right and what is wrong?

The fact of the matter is that those learned people out there with all their wisdom about diet and nutrition and with all their sales-talk about the need and importance of supplements (and especially their own brand of supplements) still have to make it to 80 years of age. Over the past few decades I have found that so many of these so-called health fanatics and supplement junkies die at a much younger age than that of my late grand-parents.

My motto is a very simple one : "Whatever you read about diet in a weekly magazine, make sure you do just the opposite. At one stage it was believed that eggs were a danger to your health and that butter was to be eaten in mederation, yet today we are being told just the opposite."

One needs to remember that Medical Practitioners are not taught much at all about diet and nutrition during their five to six years at university.

Also remember that your dietician learned all he/she knows about diet and nutrition from a textbook, all based on THEORY and not the TRUTH.

The elderly, who live beyond "three score years and ten" have personal experience and they are what we could term as "the proof of the pudding". It just goes to show that their diets and life-style, although termed as "bad" were not detrimental to their health.

My father's Rule of Thumb

The things that make your life easier, are the things that will eventually kill you.
("Die dinge wat die lewe vir jou gemaklik maak is die goed wat jou gaan doodmaak")

You don't want to struggle with fresh milk going sour every other day, so you buy long-life milk, which is sure to kill you.

You don't want to struggle with taking butter in and out the fridge, which is either too hard or turns to oil, so you opt for margarine instead, which will kill you.

Those things you do not want to struggle with and therefore replace with things to make your life easier, are the ones that will ultimately bring about ill health and eventually lead to death.

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by Dr. Johan P. Prinsloo

The new kid on the block surely is Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), also wrongly referred to as Natural Health, Clinical Nutrition, Food Supplementation, Vitamins and Minerals, Diet, Diet, Diet. Oh and let us not forget, filtered Water, Reverse Osmosis Water, Distilled Water, (even as much as four litres per day are being proposed by some), Ozonated Water, Ozonated Air, Ozonated Bathing Water, Raw Vegetable juice and Fruit Diets.

no such thing as a balanced dietA well-known international nutritionist / scientist on one of his visits to South Africa said the following, "I have spent my life, travelling the World in search of the perfect balanced diet and I couldn't find it" and then he went on to say, "Whenever one listens to the radio, watches Television or reads a Magazine, all that is spoken of is diet, yet one can go without food for sixty days, but without water for only two days. Which then is the most important, the food we eat or the water we drink? We can go without air for only some four minutes. Which is now the most important, the food we eat, the water we drink or the air that we breath? But, we can go without our soul for less than a second ....." Makes one think doesn't it?

Nutrition, food supplementation and the value or dangers relating to the various foods and things we eat and drink is probably the most confusing subject to the general public. The stories are multitude, the so called research opposing or supporting the value of individual foods are so contradictory and manipulated that it eventually makes very little sense to anyone. Take Margarine for instance, for the past few decades the public were told to steer clear of butter and rather eat margarine, now as of late we are told to rather have butter as margarine is too dangerous. Another example is eggs. For the past thirty years we've been told to stay away from eggs, now thirthy years down the line patients are told to have at least one egg per day ..... how confusing this must be to the public!

There are more miraculous claims made by manufacturers of complementary / alternative medicines and especially food supplements than for any other form of healing known to humankind. Every once in a while we have a new miracle cure available. The interesting thing about complementary medicine is that they all eventually end up as cure-all miracle treatments.

African potatoe can today cure almost any disease known, the same goes for Aloe vera and Ozone therapy and even the distributors of N.A.D. has jumped on this same bandwagon of claiming that N.A.D. can cure almost anything. The latest miracle cure of course is so-called Glyconutrients. It is even claimed that Glyconutrients can cure (reverse) Down's syndrome?!

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This is the most disappointing aspect of complementary medicine and food supplements. One cannot imagine that the CAM's industry has yet to realise how foolish they are by claiming such a wide range of cures and applications for their individual products. It thrives on the gullibility of suffering patients and their families. There is seldom any kind of proof for any of the claims made on the packaging of these so-called miracle cures.

People are so desperate for help that they are willing to try anything to improve their health and the complementary medicine industry capitalises on their desperation in order to sell their products, in any way possible.

Vitamin C is probably the most well-known food supplement on the face of the Earth. It is a cure-all, prevent all, magical, one-stop food supplement and medicine. Is it not strange that notwithstanding the tons of Vit-C being consumed by millions of people across the globe everyone still falls pray to any and every disease and virus known? Vitamin C has done NOTHING to prevent people from falling ill and it never will, because it is not the prevent-all and cure-all it is made out to be.

Does Vit-C have a place in health? Sure it does and there is evidence to the effect. It should be remembered though that ascorbic acid is NOT vitamin C, yet virtually every product containing Vit-C contains ascorbic acid instead, but sold as Vit-C. Visit the Foodstate website to learn the difference.

There remains so much to say about diet, nutrition and wellness that it requires a dedicated web-page to cover most aspects relating thereto. This page will be written over the next few weeks and continue to be updated as it is a never ending story.

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Don't Discard Centuries of Nutrition Wisdom
By Dr. Al Sears (Read the original article HERE)

My dad was health conscious in an old-fashioned way. He practiced holistic health care before it had a name. He knew how to keep himself lean and muscular without much effort.

He would beat all the neighbors at parties in push-up contests. Women would steal glances at his biceps and men would marvel at his feats of strength. Many people probably assumed it was good genes. Yet, I believe it was about life choices.

Our culture has been critical of the health choices of our fathers. They have become politically incorrect - even taboo. Yet, before you throw away these centuries of wisdom, let's re-examine them in light of today's science.

Dad never lifted a weight in his life. He did rounds of push-ups, pull-ups and crunches. He said his diet of raw eggs, wild game and spicy food would "make a man out of you." Most tips he got from his father and older brothers. They were their own men's club. He passed these health tips down to me and now I want to share them with you.

Eat Wild Game, Grass-Fed Meat

Steak tartareMy dad was a hunter. We always had rabbit, squirrel and quail - and occasionally deer or wild boar. He claimed that eating meat could make you strong and "put hair on your chest."

I never took this literally until decades later, when I found research that red meat is the best source of muscle building creatine, provides the highest concentration of heart-fueling CoQ10 and increases testosterone levels.

As testosterone drops, men lose body hair. As testosterone rises, men experience increases in body hair in a masculine distribution. You were right, Dad; meat really does put hair on your chest.

The meat we ate was either wild game or from nearby farms. The majority of the meat we eat today comes from commercial farms. Farmers feed the cattle grain, animal by-products, and synthetic hormones and antibiotics.1

Feedlot cattle do not eat what nature intended them to eat. As a result, the cattle often have a difficult time digesting the starch and get sick or die. To combat the disorders caused by a starchy diet, farmers inject the animals with antibiotics.

The percentage of livestock that is salmonella resistant to five different antibiotics has increased from less than one percent in 1980 to 34 percent in 1996.2 The numbers continue to rise. A growing body of evidence incriminates feedlot growth hormones as a risk factor for gastrointestinal cancers.3

How can you follow this tradition? Eat wild game and grass-fed beef. You can find these products at the grocery store if you ask and you can order them online. The prices are a bit higher, but the health benefits are substantial. Grass-fed beef and wild game is higher in omega-3, CoQ10, beta-carotene and vitamin E.

This reduces your risk of heart disease, certain cancers, depression, high blood pressure, and diabetes. What's more, grass-fed beef is five times higher in CLA than in feedlot beef. CLA helps convert fat to lean muscle. 4

Spicy Foods Protect Your Heart

Dad was fond of the spicy foods that nutritionists have been telling us to avoid. He grew a variety of his own peppers and dosed much of the food he ate with hot pepper sauces. He said they were good for your heart. He also enjoyed daring me to eat them.

It turns out that many spicy foods contain powerful antioxidants that protect against heart disease. Plants in the pepper family contain capsaicin, which has been shown to speed up your metabolism and your ability to burn calories.5

Dad's love of hot sauce may have helped him stay lean. If you like spices and peppers, don't be afraid to throw some in your next meal. (As long as you do not have any gastric problems like ulcers or GERD - Dr. J.P. Prinsloo)

Drink a Raw Egg Daily

Raw eggs for healthRight after his nightly set of push-ups, Dad drank a raw egg. He said his father would take one directly from the chicken coup, punch a hole in it with his pocketknife, put it to his lips and suck it down. He thought it was important for me to learn this technique but usually we would break it into a glass. The eggs we bought in those days came right from the farm.

Dad always said that eggs were the perfect food, but they were better if eaten raw. I don't know how he knew this, but after devoting my life to natural nutrition and health, I couldn't agree more.

Eggs are the only food known to man to have a protein quality rating of 100. They have every amino acid you need in exactly the ratios you need them. The white has every B vitamin and the yolk has every fat-soluble vitamin. They are an excellent source of essential fatty acids, and the hard-to-get brain and heart nutrients DHA and CoQ10.

Eating eggs raw maintains their chemical make-up. When you cook eggs, the protein is denatured, the B vitamins decrease, and it may destroy the DHA. Raw eggs are additionally much easier for your body to absorb. A raw egg is absorbed in 30 minutes while it takes about 4 hours to digest cooked eggs. In addition, eating eggs raw saves time. You don't have to clean pots or pans.

The risk of salmonella poisoning is very unlikely from consuming raw eggs. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that 0.00003% of eggs in the U.S. have salmonella.6 I have eaten raw eggs for 40 years and have never suffered. However, you lesson your chances even more by purchasing organic eggs.

My dad's diet of meat, raw eggs and spicy food helped him stay strong and masculine, burn fat, feel great and still enjoy his life.

People assumed that he spent hours a day lifting weights and controlled his habits like a nun. He didn't.

However, he taught me a reverence for health and diligence to my own body that I will never forget. I share his story as an example that I hope helps you take action to promote wellness in your own life.

Dr. Johan P. Prinsloo's Comment -

Recent studies on eggs have shown that eggs have less cholesterol than previously thought, and when prepared in a healthy way, they are an ideal source of protein. A single egg that's hard-cooked or scrambled (if prepared with nonfat cooking spray) contains just 75 calories, 6 grams of protein and no sugar.

"It's not the cholesterol in foods that cause health problems, but the amount of saturated fat and eggs have little fat.... In addition, eggs are one of the least expensive and most balanced proteins." - Nikki Goldbeck, co-author of American Wholefoods Cuisine (Plume)


1. Cordain L et al. (2002). "Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease." European Journal Clinical Nutrition.
2. Robinson, Jo (2000). Why Grassfed is Best! The Surprising Benefits of Grassfed Meet, Eggs, and Dairy Products. Washington: Vashon Island Press
3. Epstein, SS (1996). "Unlabeled milk from cows treated with biosynthetic growth hormones: A case of regulatory abdication." International Journal of Health Services, 26: 173-185.
4. Rule D.C. (2002). "Comparison of muscle fatty acid profiles and cholesterol concentrations of bison, beef cattle, elk, and chicken." Journal of Animal Science, 80: 1202-1211.
5. Hot peppers help control weight. Yoshioka M., et al. Br J Nutr 1999 Aug;82(2): 115-23
6. Hope BK, Baker R, Edel ED, Hogue AT, Schlosser WD, Whiting R, McDowell RM, Morales RA. (2002) An overview of the Salmonella enteritidis risk assessment for shell eggs and egg products. PubMed Risk Anal:203-18

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The following is quoted directly from Daily Dose (April 02, 2007)

Atkins Affirmed - Again!

You're probably sick of hearing this, but guess what: I WAS RIGHT.

Dr. Robert Atkins Before the proof, some background: You may already know that long before the Atkins Diet hit the mainstream in a big way, I was singing the praises of a low-carbohydrate, high-animal-fat diet for weight loss and overall health for more than 30 years - right alongside the esteemed Dr. Atkins...

But now, with his unfortunate passing in April of 2003 (has it really been 4 years already?), I'm one of the last voices in the forest advocating his diet plan, or similar variations of it.

As I've reported in past Daily Doses, the media began attacking the Atkins Diet shortly after his untimely demise. They even went after him personally, insinuating that his late-in-life heart attack was caused by his own eating habits instead of the unrelated-to-diet cardiomyopathy he suffered from. They even went so far as to portray the 40-60 pounds of water weight this condition caused Dr. Atkins to be carrying around on his 6-foot-2-inch frame when he died as an indication of morbid obesity...

Despite the fact that any doctor could have told them that this kind of fluid retention is a common symptom of some types of cardiomyopathy!

Shortly after this, the mainstream media and medical establishments embarked on a systematic campaign to discredit and malign both the Good Doctor himself and his incredibly effective diet - to which thousands (maybe even millions) of Americans owe their better health. But I digress. We were talking about how Dr. Atkins and I are being proven right once again. Well, here's the proof:

According to a recent article in the Journal of the American Medical Association - and surprisingly, picked up by a lot of mainstream news outlets - the good ol' maligned-by-the-mainstream Atkins Diet beat the pants off 3 other name-brand dieting and nutrition plans: The Zone Diet, the Ornish Diet, and the LEARN program (which is based on the U.S. government's own Food Pyramid recommendations)...

The Stanford University affiliated research showed that overweight women lost between two and three times as much weight using the Atkins plan as those who used one of these other 3 diets. They also showed a greater improvement in several cardiac health markers. Keep reading...

Not only did the Atkins gals fare better in terms of overall weight loss after a year, they also displayed comparatively:

* Higher average levels of HDL "good" cholesterol
* Lower average blood pressure
* An average 30% reduction in harmful triglycerides!

All of these results echo some research that DIDN'T make the mainstream news a year or so ago - in which Harvard survey research among several thousand female respondents re-affirmed Atkins' (and my) contention that low-carb, high-fat eating habits indeed seem to be healthier for the heart than many of today's grain-heavy "diets"...

Just goes to show that you just can't keep a good plan (or man) down.

In case you need reminding, the weight-loss principles behind the Atkins and other low-carb eating plans are simple: Calories from fats and proteins are inherently more filling and satisfying than calories from simple sugars and carbohydrates. That means you eat less of them while remaining sated - which means you lose weight.

The fact that these caloric sources are also worlds better for your heart and arteries is a nice fringe benefit, but maintaining proper weight is the real key to health. And that's a lot easier on Atkins-type diets...

As I've said about a million times before.

Repeating what's best in eating,

William Campbell Douglass II, M.D.

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Low-cal diet slows monkey aging
by Reuters, 2009-07-09 21:06

Low GI Protein Diet(The only thing ever to have been proven to prolong life in mammals is "near starvation". Numerous studies in rats have demonstrated that rats placed on a diet that only just kept them alive, far outlived rats that were over-fed or those on a standard diet. Now the latest twenty-year study in monkeys seems to prove this conclusively. To quote my father "One eats to live, one doesn't live to eat". Now read on - Dr. J.P. Prinsloo)

Chicago - A 20-year study of monkeys shows that a reduced-calorie diet pays off in less disease and longer life, US researchers said on Thursday, a finding that could apply to humans.

They said rhesus monkeys on a strict, reduced-calorie diet were three times less likely to die from age-related diseases like heart disease, cancer and diabetes over the study period than monkeys that ate as they liked.

"We have been able to show that caloric restriction can slow the aging process in a primate species," Richard Weindruch of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, whose study appears in the journal Science, said in a statement.

"We observed that caloric restriction reduced the risk of developing an age-related disease by a factor of three and increased survival," Weindruch said.

Humans may benefit too

The study in primates reinforces similar findings in yeast, worms, flies and rodents, and suggests other primates - including humans - may benefit, too.

Since people live far longer than monkeys, it may never be possible to fully study the effects of calorie restriction in humans, but monkeys do offer a close approximation, the team said.

Most caloric restriction studies have found that a lifetime of deprivation is needed to achieve the longer-life benefits, and many research teams are working on ways to replicate the findings with drugs.

Researchers reported on Wednesday that the antibiotic rapamycin, sold by Wyeth under brand Rapamune to suppress the immune system in transplant patients, showed promise at slowing age-related disease in older mice, but it is not clear how it works.

And several teams are hoping to harness the age-defying benefits of red wine. GlaxoSmithKline last year spent $720m to buy Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, which has developed a souped-up version of the red wine compound resveratrol that has been found to make mice live longer and stay healthier.

Monkey at 30% less calories

In the latest study, Weindruch and colleagues studied the effects of calorie restriction over two decades in a group of rhesus macaque monkeys.

Half of the monkeys were allowed to eat as they pleased, and the other half ate a carefully controlled diet that provided just two-thirds of the calories they would normally choose to eat.

The team found that half of the monkeys that were allowed to eat freely over the course of the 20-year study have survived, while 80% of the monkeys that ate 30% fewer calories over the same period are still alive.

While rhesus macaques have an average life span of about 27 years in captivity, the team said.

The animals that ate less had half the amount of heart disease and cancer, and there were no cases of diabetes in the low-calorie group.

Animals on a restricted diet also had more brain volume in some regions than the animals that ate freely, suggesting diet may affect brain health in aging as well.

- Reuters

Read more on: low calorie diet | longer life

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The Bottom Line is This.....
By Dr. Johan P. Prinsloo

Super GrannyHealth is a life-long process, not something we can quickly fix by taking some pill, or swallowing vitimins, minerals and food supplements, while continuing to drink, eat and slog infront of a television set.

Everyone tells us that one needs to work at a marriage, that a successful marriage demands continuous attention and dedication. The same applies equally to your health.

I always tell my students and patients that if you want to see an example of a sick individual, go to your nearest health shop and look at the bleak, sickly, skinny health fanatics hanging around in there, who live on raw vegetables, vegetable juice, and fruit.

Vegeterianism is a craze that hit the west many decades ago, founded on the supposition that it is the healthy thing to do, because in the east, people do not eat meat. Problem is that the Eastern nations do eat meat, but they just cannot afford meat.

Health and diet are matters that require no more than simple common sense.

Longevity is another fad that has taken hold of the rich in particular. People actually believe, and wish to live to 150. Please who wants to live that long, to do what, to be pushed around in a wheelchair and be a burden to everyone around them.

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♥ Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) • Dietary Reference Intake / Recommended Dietary Allowance:
• The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of: (1) Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group based on a review of the scientific literature. (2) Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient by the Food and Nutrition Board to meet the requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. It is calculated based on the EAR and is usually approximately 20% higher than the EAR (See 'Calculating the RDA', below). (3) Adequate Intake (AI), where no RDA has been established, but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group. (4) Tolerable upper intake levels (UL), to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin A) that can be harmful in large amounts. Note: The RDA is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U.S. and Canada.
♥ Vitamin A • needed for new cell growth, healthy skin, hair, and tissues, and vision in dim light.
• To get the proper absorption of vitamin A, you'll need to consume fat. Those of you who happen to be on a low fat or restricted diet, simply may not be getting the right amounts of vitamin A from your supplements that you may think. To get the proper absorption of vitamin A in your diet, you'll need to consume a high enough level of protein. Protein combines with vitamin A to make it stronger, and help it move through your body.
• Too much vitamin A, can cause pain in the joints, abdomen, and bones.
• sources: dark green and yellow vegetables and yellow fruits, such as broccoli spinach, turnip greens, carrots, squash, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, cantaloupe, and apricots, and in animal sources such as liver, milk, butter, cheese, and whole eggs.
♥ Vit B1 Thiamin - needed for energy metabolism and the proper function of the nervous system
• sources: whole grains, soybeans, peas, liver, kidney, lean cuts of pork, legumes, seeds, and nuts.
Beriberi is caused by a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1).
♥ Vit B2 Riboflavin - needed for energy metabolism, building tissue, and helps maintain good vision.
• Dietary sources: dairy products, lean meats, poultry, fish, grains, broccoli, turnip greens, asparagus, spinach, and enriched food products.
♥ Vit B3 Niacin (Also known as Nicotinic Acid or Vitamin PP) - needed for energy metabolism, proper digestion, and healthy nervous system
• sources: lean meats, liver, poultry, milk, canned salmon, leafy green vegetables
♥ Vit B5 Pantothenic Acid - needed for energy metabolism
• sources: egg yolk, liver, kidney, yeast, broccoli, lean beef, skim milk, sweet potatoes, molasses
♥ Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine - needed for cell growth
• sources: chicken, fish, pork, liver, kidney, whole grains, nuts, and legumes
♥ Vitamin B12 Cobalamin - needed for building proteins in the body, red blood cells, and normal function of nervous tissue
• sources: liver, kidney, yogurt, dairy products, fish, clams, oysters, nonfat dry milk, salmon, sardines
♥ Vitamin C
 (Important Research)
• an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen to hold the cells together and for healthy teeth, gums and blood vessels; Vitamin C deficiency causes Scurvy and research indicates that Vit-C Dificiency contributes to periodontal disease. (See this image on Vitamin C Benefits)
♥ For more information on ♥ Heart & Periodontal Disease see my extensive page on ♥ Heart Disease
• improves iron absorption and resistance to infection.
• sources: many fresh vegetables and fruits, such as broccoli, green and red peppers, collard greens, brussel sprouts, cauliflower, lemon, cabbage, pineapples, strawberries, citrus fruits
♥ Vitamin D • promotes absorption and use of calcium and phosphate for healthy bones and teeth.
• There is good data showing that lack of vitamin D may increase a man's chances of developing prostate cancer.
• Dietary sources: milk (fortified), cheese, whole eggs, liver, salmon, and fortified margarine. The skin can synthesize vitamin D if exposed to enough sunlight on a regular basis.
♥ Vitamin E • protects red blood cells and helps prevent destruction of vitamin A and C
• sources: margarine and vegetable oil (soybean, corn, safflower, and cottonseed), wheat germ, green leafy vegetables.
♥ Vitamin K • necessary for normal blood clotting and synthesis of proteins found in plasma, bone, and kidneys.
• sources: spinach, lettuce, kale, cabbage, cauliflower, wheat bran, organ meats, cereals, some fruits, meats, dairy products, eggs.
♥ Calcium • needed for healthy bones and teeth, normal blood clotting, and nervous system functioning
is needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells.
• Dietary sources of calcium include dairy products, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds. • sources: dairy products, broccoli, cabbage, kale, tofu, sardines and salmon
♥ Chlorine • is needed for production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. Table salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source.
• sources: To be completed
♥ Copper • Like Iron, Manganese and Zinc, Copper is essential for the normal functioning of the body. It is needed for synthesis of hemoglobin, proper iron metabolism, and maintenance of blood vessels.
• While the value of Copper for the prevention of Influenza has been known to Homeopaths for almost 200 years, the conventional medical fraternity may actually be catching up (slowly). Prominent Professors (Professor Bill Keevil and Dr Jonathan Noyce, microbiology researchers at the University's School of Biological Sciences) have stated that Copper could help prevent the spread of Influenza Infections.
• Copper also posesses powerful Antimicrobial qualities and plays an important role in the Immune System.
• sources: seafood, nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables
♥ Folate (Folic Acid) • promotes normal digestion; essential for development of red blood cells
• sources: liver, yeast, dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, and some fruits
••In men, folic acid supplementation appears to double the risk of prostate cancer. Unmetabolized folic acid is associated with a reduction in natural killer cell cytotoxicity, which reduces the immune system's ability to defend against malignant cells.
••The cancer drug methotrexate is designed to inhibit the metabolism of folic acid. Folic acid may interact unexpectedly with the cancer drug fluorouracil.
•Folate is necessary for fertility in both men and women. In men, it contributes to spermatogenesis. In women, on the other hand, it contributes to oocyte maturation, implantation, placentation, in addition to the general effects of folic acid and pregnancy. Therefore, it is necessary to receive sufficient amounts through the diet
♥ Iodine • is required not only for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and to prevent goiter, but also, probably as an antioxidant, for extrathyroidal organs as mammary and salivary glands and for gastric mucosa and immune system (thymus):
Iodide as an antioxidant
iodine deficiency
• sources: To be completed
♥ Iron • is required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body cells and to prevent anemia.
iron overload disorder
• Dietary sources include red meat, dark leafy green vegetables, fish (tuna, salmon), eggs, dried fruits, beans, legumes, whole grains, and enriched grains.

 The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, a well-known and respected medical body, feels that the research data is strong enough for them to officially state that "diets which provide plenty of magnesium are a positive lifestyle modification for individuals with hypertension."
• is required for processing ATP and needed for healthy bones and teeth, proper nervous system functioning, and energy metabolism.
♥ Also see my extensive page on ♥ Heart Disease
magnesium deficiency
• Dietary sources : Magnesium is found in a wide variety of healthy, inexpensive foods : table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), Fish and nuts are especially rich in the mineral - 28 gram of almonds contains about 80mg of magnesium. Beans, cocoa mass, dairy products, meat, nuts, poultry, green vegetables, legumes, milk, potatoes and soy beans are sources of magnesium, as are certain vegetables such as spinach and sea vegetables,
As an example, consider the magnesium content of these foods:
• Cooked white fish, 85 gram: 90mg
• Cashews, 28 gram: 75mg
• Medium baked potato: 50mg
• Plain lowfat yogurt, 227 gram: 45mg
• Medium banana: 30mg
• Ready-to-eat pudding, 113 gram: 24mg
• Each of these foods is also a good source of potassium and calcium, which are helpful in the prevention and management of high blood pressure. A simple rule of thumb for eating a healthy diet is to eat foods that are many different colors. Green peppers, red apples, yellow bananas, brown potatoes, etc.
♥ Manganese • needed for enzyme structure
• sources: whole grain products, fruits and vegetables, tea
♥ Molybdenum • the oxidases xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase
molybdenum deficiency
• sources: To be completed
♥ Phosphorus • is a component of bones (see apatite) and energy processing and many other functions. In biological contexts, usually seen as phosphate.
• needed for healthy bones and teeth, energy metabolism, and acidbase balance in the body. Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is usually found in nature combined with oxygen as phosphate. Phosphorus is a nutrient required by all organisms for the basic processes of life. Inorganic phosphorus in the form of the phosphate PO43- plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural backbone of these molecules. Living cells also utilize phosphate to transport cellular energy via adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nearly every cellular process that uses energy gets it in the form of ATP. Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts are used by animals to stiffen their bones. Next to calcium, phosphorus is the most abundant mineral in the body. Approximately 85% of phosphorus in the body can be found in bones and teeth and roughly 10% circulates in the bloodstream. Phosphorus can be found in the environment most commonly as phosphates.
Phosphorus deficiency : Inadequate phosphorus intake results in abnormally low serum phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). Hypophosphatemia is usually asymptomatic. Chronic severe hypophosphatemia can cause anorexia, muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. Phosphorous deficiencies can be caused by excessive intake of aluminum containing agents (such as certain antacids) because the aluminium can bind to phosphorous. In addition, diabetes, starvation, alcoholism, and conditions that can cause abnormal absorption of nutrients can lead to depletion of phosphorous in the body. Symptoms of phosphate deficiency include loss of appetite, anxiety, bone pain, bone fragility, stiffness in the joints, fatigue, irregular breathing, irritability, numbness, weakness, and weight change. In children, decreased growth and poor bone and tooth development may occur.
• sources: milk, grains, lean meats, food additives
♥ Potassium • is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating Adenosine_triphosphate (ATP) with sodium.
• Dietary sources include legumes, potato skin, tomatoes, and bananas.
♥ Selenium • a cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase.
selenium deficiency
• sources: To be completed
♥ Sodium • is a systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium.
• Dietary sources include table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea vegetables, milk, and spinach.
♥ Zinc • needed for cell reproduction, tissue growth and repair.
• Studies have shown that boys who are deprived of zinc do not develop normal sexual characteristics. A lack of Zinc is also said to be a cause of impotence, but read HERE!
• is pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase.
zinc deficiency
zinc toxicity
• sources: meat, seafood, and liver, eggs, milk, whole-grain products
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Other Elements

♥ Other Elements • Many elements have been suggested as essential, but have not been confirmed. One of the for this is that some elements are innocuous at low concentrations and are pervasive, so proof is lacking because deficiencies are difficult to reproduce.
♥ Sulfur • Relatively large quantities of sulfur are required, but there is no RDA, as the sulfur is obtained from and used for amino acids, and therefore should be adequate in any diet containing enough protein.
•Excess Sulfur (primarily associated with compounds)
♥ Cobalt • Cobalt is required in the synthesis of vitamin B12, but because bacteria are required to synthesize the vitamin, it is usually considered part of vitamin B12 deficiency rather than its own dietary element deficiency.
♥ Nickel • There have been occasional studies asserting the essentiality of nickel, but it currently has no known RDA.
Nickel toxicity
♥ Chromium • Chromium is sometimes described as essential.
• It is implicated in sugar metabolism in humans, leading to a market for the supplement chromium picolinate, but definitive biochemical evidence for a physiological function is lacking.
Chromium toxicity
♥ Fluorine • Fluorine (as fluoride) has been described as conditionally essential, depending upon the importance placed upon the prevention of chronic disease.
• It is implicated in sugar metabolism in humans, leading to a market for the supplement chromium picolinate, but definitive biochemical evidence for a physiological function is lacking.
Fluoride poisoning
♥ Others Arsenic, boron, bromine, cadmium, silicon, tungsten, and vanadium have established, albeit specialized, biochemical roles as structural or functional cofactors in other organisms. These elements appear not to be utilized by humans.

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